RI wants to be one of UNs biggest troop contributors

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The government expects the Indonesian Military (TNI) to provide more personnel to join United Nations peacekeeping forces, so that Indonesia can become one of the top-10 largest UN troop contributors.

“Indonesia now ranks 17th, with 1,815 personnel,” President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said in Jakarta on Wednesday as quoted byAntara news agency.

He said Indonesia could achieve its target as one of the biggest UN troop contributors within a short period.

To that end, he said, Indonesia must provide more than 4,000 personnel to join UN peacekeeping forces. That was why during his two terms between 2004 and 2014, there was an almost 400-percent increase in the military budget and almost a four-fold increase in spending on the National Police and public security guards (Kamtibmas).

Based on UN data, Bangladesh tops the list of 10 countries, providing 8,316 personnel. Pakistan ranks second with 8,250 personnel, followed by India (7,848), Ethiopia (6,534), and Nigeria (4,949).

Other countries are Rwanda with 4,683 personnel, followed by Nepal (4,553), Jordan (3,381), Ghana (2,907) and Egypt (2,865). (idb/ebf)




NASA Unveils Futuristic Z-2 Spacesuit: Mars-Tough Duds that Glow

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NASA’s next-generation spacesuit is really coming together, with a little help from the public.

The space agency revealed today (April 30) the “Tron”-like new look of its prototype Z-2 spacesuit, which sports an external “cover layer” chosen by public vote.

The cover layer option dubbed “Technology” won the spacesuit design challenge with 147,354 votes, or just over 63 percent of the total ballots cast, NASA officials said. The other two choices — “Biomimicry” and “Trends in Society” — received 53,057 and 33,020 votes, respectively.

The newly selected cover layer now becomes part of the Z-2, which should be fully constructed and ready to be tested by November, officials said.

That extensive testing campaign won’t prepare the Z-2 for spaceflight, however. The Z-series spacesuit line is still in the prototype phase, seeking to advance and develop technologies that will allow astronauts to amble about on the surface of Mars someday. So whatever NASA learns about the Z-2 will inform the design of the next iteration, the Z-3.


The Z-2, for example, features some key improvements over the Z-1 spacesuit, which was named one of Time Magazine’s best inventions in 2012. The Z-2’s hard upper torso makes it more durable, officials said, and the suit uses materials designed to function well in the vacuum of space.

The newly selected cover layer — which sports electroluminescent wiring and a stark, futuristic look — will provide services beyond mere aesthetics, officials said.

“The cover layer of a non-flight suit still performs an important function in ground-based testing. The cover protects the lower layers and technical details from abrasion and snags during testing,” NASA officials wrote in a press release today.

“The cover layer on flight suits used for spacewalks performs many other important functions like protecting the spacewalker from micrometeorite strikes, the extreme temperatures in space and the harmful effects of radiation,” they added. “These requirements drive selection of specific high-performance materials and design details that aren’t necessary at this stage in a prototype suit.”



Russia Shows Modern Military in Ukraine Crisis

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 — An estimated 40,000 Russian troops are deployed on the Ukrainian border, poised to invade if the order comes from Moscow.

These forces are part of a much larger military that has been modernizing its forces over the past several years.

Western estimates say the Russian Defense Ministry has between 800,000 and one million men under arms. These include strategic rocket forces as well as the various uniformed services: air, air defense, ground and naval. And there are various kinds of special forces, such as the Spetsnaz belonging to Russia’s military intelligence or GRU.  

Stephen Blank, an expert on the Russian military at the American Foreign Policy Council, said there are also paramilitary forces.

“The other forces belong to other ministries: the Ministry of the Interior, which are the internal forces of the MVD. The FSB has forces – that’s the intelligence [service],” said Blank. “There are border troops and then there are paramilitaries like the Cossack formations. So there are lots of people involved here, probably something like one million men total in the regular armed forces, several hundred thousand more in these auxiliaries of the MVD, FSB, Cossacks and so on.”

Russia learned lessons from 2008 war with Georgia

Ian Brzezinski, from the Atlantic Council, said the Russian government is spending a lot of money to modernize its armed forces.

“$750 billion between now and the next decade to replenish their maritime fleet, replenish their air force to bring in fifth-generation aircraft, even more sophisticated air missile defense systems. They continue to robustly test and develop new ballistic missile capabilities and they continue their modernization of their ground forces.”

Brzezinski and others say Russia’s effort to modernize its military was prompted by poor performance in Moscow’s 2008, five-day war with Georgia over two separatist regions.

“You may recall the pictures of drunk soldiers straggling in the rear, trying to catch up to the frontline troops. And the fact that the Russians had a bit of difficulty taking on the Georgians, which didn’t put on that strong a defense – and they were able to press forward simply by pure mass rather than skill.”

Russia modernizes its military

Experts say one reform was to make the Russian military more mobile, better geared for rapid response and for local conflicts, rather than with the massive Soviet-style army.

Keir Giles, head of Conflict Studies Research Center in Oxford, England, said during the Georgian war, coordination between the different armed service branches was a problem for the Russians.

“They didn’t, for example, have the kind of embedded forward air controllers with their ground units in order to actually communicate with air power. So some of the air losses in the Georgia war were actually shot down by their own side, by the Russians.”

New Russian military on display

Ian Brzezinski said the results of the reforms were on display during Russia’s annexation last month of Ukraine’s Crimean peninsula.

“You see the way they have been performing in Crimea, where you had 20,000 to 30,000 Russian troops fan across the peninsula,” he said. “Pretty slick uniforms, well-maintained equipment, and real stunningly or impressive discipline and communication silence, communications discipline. They are certainly far more capable than they were six years ago.”

Stephen Blank from the American Foreign Policy Council said Russia used its forces “in an extraordinarily disciplined, bloodless, swift way, in conjunction with information warfare against Ukraine, saturation of Crimea and eastern Ukraine with Russian propaganda, and the deployment of highly-trained, modernized combined forces on the western strategic direction, to intimidate, divert and immobilize NATO and the Ukrainian armed forces.”

Blank said members of the Russian military leadership believe that the end of the Cold War was an American special operation to take down the Soviet Union without firing a shot – and it succeeded. Blank said the Russian military tried to do the same, with success, in Crimea.



Why NATO is such a thorn in Russia’s side

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Moscow (CNN) — In a telephone call Monday between Russia’s Defense Minister General Sergei Shoigu and the U.S. Secretary of Defence Chuck Hagel, Shoigu described the activity of U.S. and NATO troops near Russia’s border as “unprecedented.”

According to the official Russian version of the call, his American counterpart assured him the alliance did not have “provocative or expansionist” intentions — and that Russia should know this.

But it hardly seems to matter how often NATO makes these assurances. The Kremlin will never trust them. Fear of the Western military alliance’s steady march east is deep-rooted. It strikes at the very heart of Russia’s national sense of security, a relic of Cold War enmity which has seeped down to post-Soviet generations.

Ilya Saraev is a 15-year-old pupil at the First Moscow cadet school in Moscow. He thinks long and hard when I ask him about NATO. “I think NATO might be a friend to Russia but there’s one point I don’t understand: Why it needs to approach the border with Russia more and more,” he says.

Cadet school is an education in patriotism, like something from a bygone era. Besides the regular classes, there are lessons in ballroom dancing. Teenage cadets proudly leading local beauties through the waltz while outside their classmates rehearse the goosestep.

After the takeover of Crimea, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry accused Russia of behaving in a 19th century fashion in the 21st century. In some ways it’s an epithet that seems to ring true here. The children are immaculately mannered and thoughtful. They write to their fellow cadets in Crimea. They say they feel sad there’s this tension between brother nations — Russia and Ukraine.


“People still don’t realize that war means despair and grief,” says 16-year-old Vlad Voinakov. “They can’t find a compromise because people’s interests become involved and that’s where the problem lies.”

Russia and NATO have never been able to find much of a compromise. Russia’s repeated stance is that after German reunification, promises were made that NATO would never expand eastward — and were promptly broken. NATO says this is simply not true. “No such pledge was made, and no evidence to back up Russia’s claims has ever been produced,” the alliance wrote in an April fact sheet entitled “Russia’s accusations — setting the record straight.”

NATO says it has tried hard to make Russia a “privileged partner.” It has worked together with Russia on a range of issues from counter-terrorism and counter-narcotics to submarine rescue and emergency planning. NATO says that fundamentally Russia’s anti-NATO rhetoric is an attempt to “divert attention away from its actions” in Ukraine. Now all cooperation is off the table.

“From the Russian side, that NATO-Russian cooperation was just a camouflage,” says Vladimir Batyuk of Russian think tank, the Institute of USA and Canada Studies. “After the Cold War Russia tried several times to become a member and the Americans always said, ‘it’s not going to happen.'” He quotes Lord Ismay, NATO’s first Secretary General, on the object of NATO’s existence: “To keep the Russians out, the Americans in and the Germans down.”

Russian President Vladimir Putin declared at his annual direct call with the Russian people that part of his reasoning for annexing Crimea was to protect Sevastopol, home of Russia’s Black Sea fleet, from ever falling into NATO’s hands. “If we don’t do anything, Ukraine will be drawn into NATO sometime in the future. We’ll be told: “This doesn’t concern you,” and NATO ships will dock in Sevastopol, the city of Russia’s naval glory,” he said.

Ukraine’s Prime Minister Arseniy Yetsenyuk has said Ukrainian accession to NATO is not a priority. The nation is currently in such a state of disarray that NATO membership seems unimaginable. But a membership action plan was discussed for both Ukraine and Georgia at the Bucharest Summit in 2008. It was put on hold. But Putin does not forget.

“Ever since (former Ukraine President Viktor) Yanukovych fled his country and a pro-Western government took power in his country, of course this is something [Putin] couldn’t stop thinking about,” says Masha Lipman of the Carnegie Moscow Center. “So for him, to prevent Ukraine from becoming part of the western orbit if not of NATO, was something he absolutely cannot afford.”

This is why the rotation of 600 U.S. troops, small as it is, through the Baltic states and Poland for joint-training exercises is such an affront for Russia. This is why it is perhaps not strictly fair to accuse Russia of just engaging in propaganda when it declares its mistrust of NATO.

Batyuk says he feels that the general public’s attitude to the alliance has worsened since the end of the Cold War. Then, people were able to dismiss the Kremlin’s line towards NATO as Soviet propaganda, he says. Now it’s different. “A store of unsuccessful mishaps in relations between Russia and the West after the end of the Cold War has contributed to a rise in suspicions on the Russian side to Western policy in general and NATO in particular.”

That’s one of the reasons Putin’s popularity has soared since the annexation of Crimea. There is a feeling among the general public that, at last, Russia is standing up for its rights in the post-Soviet space where it has sat maligned for decades. Much as the Kremlin likes to nurture that narrative, it is also easy to see why it resonates with the Russian public.



Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: Australian Firm Claims Wreckage Spotted in Bay of Bengal

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An Australian-based company, GeoResonance, has claimed that it has sighted wreckage of the missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in the Bay of Bengal, using satellite images scanned over 772,000 sq miles and 20 different technologies to analyse the data.

The company began its search on 10 March and focused its efforts on the north of the MH370’s last known location. The possible wreckage site narrowed down by GeoResonance is about 3,000 miles away from the current location where most of the search operation is concentrated.

The team at GeoResonance analysed the data using nuclear reactor technology designed to find submarines and warheads, according to the company spokesman, David Pope.

Elements of commercial aircraft were detected by the researchers at GeoResonance, which might add credence to their claim.

“We identified chemical elements and materials that make up a Boeing 777… these are aluminium, titanium, copper, steel alloys and other materials,” another company spokesman, Pavel Kursa, said in a statement.

To back the findings, GeoResonance scientists analysed images taken on 5 March, three days before the plane went missing, and compared them with later images.

“The wreckage wasn’t there prior to the disappearance of MH370,” Pope said.

“We’re not trying to say it definitely is MH370. However, it is a lead we feel should be followed up.”

However, Malaysia’s Civil Aviation Director-General Azharuddin Abdul Rahman told the Star Newspaper that the department was yet to receive the information from GeoResonance.

“We will have to check and verify this report.”

TomNod Image found in Gulf of Thailand

Meanwhile, a recreational pilot in the US has closed in on a TomNod file of an underwater plane in one piece, after scanning thousands of satellite images.

Michael Hoebel, 60, found a picture showing a one-piece plane floating under the water in the Gulf of Thailand, the place over which the vanished aircraft made its final communication with air traffic control.

“I was taken aback because I couldn’t believe I would find this,” he told WIVB.

“The lighter skin where the wing attaches to the fuselage – you see that lighter skin [here in the image].”

He was then asked by a reporter if it could be an image of a shark, to which he replied: “That’s a 210ft shark.”

He reportedly contacted the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the National Transportation Safety Board about his findings  but has not heard from them yet.



Example of Questions

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5W1H Question :


  • Who

Who are you?

Who’s living in that house?

Who is going to school by bus?

Who went to school by bus yesterday?

Who’s ate my pudding last night?


  • What

What are you talking about?

What kind of job are you doing right now?

What’s your favourite song?

What is your dream?

What kind of person are you?


  • Where

Where do you college?

Where is your girlfriend live?

Where do you live?

Where is my pencil?

Where are you right now?


  • Why

Why budi ate my pudding last night?

Why this happen to me?

Why i must helping you?

Why you do this to me?

Why do you love me?


  • When

When is the sunrise?

When did he leave?

When the exam begin?

When do you married?

When your uncle died?


  • How

How did you get there?

How long did you lived in that house?

How old are you?

How are you?

How did you get that job?


  • Yes – No Question

Do you watch anime very much?

Do you like anime?

May I borrow your Laptop?

Do you like sweet things?

Do you have a girlfriend?


  • Tag question

with auxiliaries

You’ve got a car, haven’t you?

without auxiliaries (use: don’t, doesn’t, didn’t)

They play football on Sundays, don’t they?

She plays football on Sundays, doesn’t she?

They played football on Sundays, didn’t they?

Special question

Open the window, will you?

Let’s take the next bus, shall we?



Definition Of Information Questions

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5W 1H Question :


  • Identify the characters in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the characters and describe to yourself the relationship between the characters.


  • Identify the events or actions and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the events or actions to show the relationship between  them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the characters and the events as you describe to yourself the relationship between them.


  • Identify all the places in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between places, events and characters as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.


  • Identify all the time factors in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between time factors, places, events and characters as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.


  • Identify causes for events of actions and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines from the causes to effects on the characters, events, places, or times as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.


  • Identify the way events took place and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the way events took place and other factors as you describe to yourself the relationship among them


Yes No Question :

Definition:  An interrogative construction that expects an answer of “yes” or “no.” Contrast with wh- question.

Examples and Observations:

Homer: Are you an angel?

Moe: Yes, Homer. All us angels wear Farrah slacks.

(The Simpsons)

“Directing a movie is a very overrated job, we all know it. You just have to say ‘yes’ or ‘no.’ What else do you do? Nothing. ‘Maestro, should this be red?’ Yes. ‘Green?’ No. ‘More extras?’ Yes. ‘More lipstick?’ No. Yes. No. Yes. No. That’s directing.” (Judi Dench as Liliane La Fleur in Nine, 2009).

Principal McGee: Are you just going to stand there all day?

Sonny: No ma’am. I mean, yes ma’am. I mean, no ma’am.

Principal McGee: Well, which is it?

Sonny: Um, no ma’am.

(Eve Arden and Michael Tucci in Grease, 1978)

The yes-no question is found in three varieties: the inverted question, the typical exemplar of this kind; the inverted question offering an alternative (which may require more than a simple yes or no for an answer); and the tag question:

Are you going? (inversion)

Are you staying or going? (inversion with alternative)

You’re going, aren’t you? (tag)

The inverted question merely inverts the subject and the first verb of the verb phrase of the corresponding statement pattern when that verb is either a modal or an auxiliary verb or the verb be and sometimes have. The question itself may be positive or negative:

She is leaving on Wednesday.

Is she leaving on Wednesday?

. . . A positive question appears to be neutral as to the expected response–yes or no. However, a negative question seems to hold out the distinct possibility of a negative response.

Are you going? Yes/No.

Aren’t you going? No.

(Ronald Wardhaugh, Understanding English Grammar: A Linguistic Approach. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003)

“There are many different ways to format questions on a survey. Let’s say you want to measure people’s attitudes toward premarital sex. You could ask a simple yes-no question:

Are you in favor of premarital sex?

___ Yes ___ No

Or you could use a Likert-type scale where the question is phrased as a statement.” (Annabel Ness Evans and Bryan J. Rooney, Methods in Psychological Research, 2nd ed. Sage, 2011) Also Known As: polar interrogative, polar question, bipolar question

Tag Question :

Question tags are the short questions that we put on the end of sentences – particularly in spoken English. There are lots of different question tags but the rules are not difficult to learn.


If the main part of the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative ….

  • He’s a doctor, isn’t he?
  • You work in a bank, don’t you?

… and if the main part of the sentence is negative, the question tag is positive.

  • You haven’t met him, have you?
  • She isn’t coming, is she?

With auxiliary verbs

The question tag uses the same verb as the main part of the sentence. If this is an auxiliary verb (‘have’, ‘be’) then the question tag is made with the auxiliary verb.

  • They’ve gone away for a few days, haven’t they?
  • They weren’t here, were they?
  • He had met him before, hadn’t he?
  • This isn’t working, is it?

Without auxiliary verbs

If the main part of the sentence doesn’t have an auxiliary verb, the question tag uses an appropriate form of ‘do’.

  • I said that, didn’t I?
  • You don’t recognise me, do you?
  • She eats meat, doesn’t she?

With modal verbs

If there is a modal verb in the main part of the sentence the question tag uses the same modal verb.

  • They couldn’t hear me, could they?
  • You won’t tell anyone, will you?

With ‘I am’

Be careful with question tags with sentences that start ‘I am’. The question tag for ‘I am’ is ‘aren’t I?’

  • I’m the fastest, aren’t I?


Question tags can either be ‘real’ questions where you want to know the answer or simply asking for agreement when we already know the answer.

If the question tag is a real question we use rising intonation. Our tone of voice rises.
If we already know the answer we use falling intonation. Our tone of voice falls.



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